After Pruning, the canes still remaining will be trained. There are 4 basic types of training systems, and one will be chosen based on the climate of the vineyard, and the yield required. The purpose of training is to control the way the grapes and leaf cover are exposed to the sun. In a vineyard with cold temperatures or a lot of wind, the grapes might be trained low to the ground to help them absorb reflected heat from the ground. The training system may involve wires, also called pergolas, that the grapes are tied to, or they may be free standing. The four types of training systems are:
- Bush training or gobelet: This system is used in warmer regions like Beaujolais or the Rhône valley. The vines are left free standing, without the use of any pergolas, and about 4 or 5 spurs are left. This system leaves the grapes bunched closer together, so is not used when the potential for rot is present. It also leaves the grapes closer to the ground, so it is not used when the risk or frost is high.
- Replacement cane: This system is called guyot when it is used in Burgundy and Bourdeaux. The canes are trained along horizontal wires, and new canes are used every year. In a single guyot system, one cane is used, and in a double guyot, two.
- Cordon spur: In this system, the trunk of the vine is grown laterally, with several spurs left on its length. This can be a low cordon system, like the Cordon de Royat system used in Champagne, or a high cordon system, such as the Geneva Double Curtain.
- Parral or Pergola: In this system the vines are trained high on the wires, with the grape bunches hanging around head height. The primary purpose of this system is to give leaf cover in hot climates.